This year’s Melbourne Mercer Global Pension Index (MMGPI) was recently published. The Index measures the retirement income systems for 34 countries against more than 40 indicators. These include sub-indices measuring the adequacy, sustainability and integrity of the retirement system.
South Africa’s index value currently stands at 52.7 – a slight increase in comparison to its rating of 48.9 in 2017. The country’s index rating falls within the range comparable to that of developing countries including Brazil, Indonesia and Malaysia as well as developed nations like the USA, Austria, Spain and Italy.
Nicolette Hendricks, CEO, South Africa at Mercer, says the purpose of the index is to provide a benchmark against which countries can measure their retirement income systems. “Every country has its own unique economic, social and political circumstances. Nevertheless, every country can take action and move towards a better system. In the long-term, there is no perfect pension system, but the principles of ‘best practice’ are clear.”
2018 Melbourne Mercer Global Pension Index
“Ageing populations, high sovereign debt levels in some countries and the global competition to lower taxes constrain the ability of some jurisdictions to improve retirement income security. With a decade of unique data, the MMGPI and associated research can provide valuable global comparative insights to planners and policymakers on the way forward”, says Professor Deep Kapur, Director of Australian Centre for Financial Studies.
For example, the MMGPI researchers recommend that South Africa can increase its overall score in the index through, amongst other steps, introducing a minimum level of mandatory contributions into a retirement savings fund or increasing the level of preservation of benefits when members withdraw from occupational funds.
What does the future look like?
Author of the study and Senior Partner at Mercer Australia, Dr David Knox says that the natural starting place to having a world-class pension system is ensuring the right balance between adequacy and sustainability.
“It’s a challenge that policymakers are grappling with,” adds Dr Knox. “For example, a system providing very generous benefits in the short-term is unlikely to be sustainable, whereas a system that is sustainable over many years could be providing very modest benefits. The question is – what’s an appropriate trade-off?”
This year’s Index also reveals that many North-Western European countries lead the world in developing world class pension systems. The Netherlands, with an overall score of 80.3, beat Denmark to first place, a spot held by Denmark for six years, by 0.1. Finland bumped Australia (72.6) out of third place with an overall score of 74.5 and Sweden (72.5) coming in fifth place.
However, common across all results was the growing tension between adequacy and sustainability. This was particularly evident when examining Europe’s results. Denmark, Netherlands and Sweden score A or B grades for both adequacy and sustainability, whereas Austria, Italy and Spain score a B grade for adequacy but an E grade for sustainability thereby pointing to important areas needing reform.
David Anderson, President, International at Mercer adds that it’s a positive step to see governments tackle pension reform as life expectancies continue to rise. “Developed economies have been aware of the demographic challenges facing their pension systems for some time. Where economies are less developed, it’s pleasing to see many governments recognising the same trends emerging in their own populations and taking steps now to address this. Such actions make future pension systems more sustainable over the longer term,” he says.
Melbourne Mercer Global Pension Index – Overall index value results 2018
The following table shows the overall index value for each country, together with the index value for each of the three sub-indices: adequacy, sustainability, and integrity1. Each index value represents a score between zero and 100.